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19 February 2020

Transformer

What is a Transformer?

A transformer is an electrical device that power transfer one circuit to another circuit without changing frequency. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a voltage in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coil through the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two circuit. Transformer are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltage in electric power application.

Electrical Transformer
Electrical Transformer
                             


Electrical Transformer
Circuit Diagram Electrical Transformer


                             





Construction of a Transformer
It mainly consists of
  1. Magnetic circuit (consisting of core, limbs, yoke and damping structure).
  2. Electrical circuit (consisting of primary and secondary winding)
  3. Dielectric circuit (consisting of insulation in different forms and used at different places)
  4. Tanks and accessories (conservator, breather, bushings, cooling tubes, etc.)

Types of Transformer

The various types are described below
  1. Position of the winding concerning the core
  • Core type
  • Shell type
  1. According to the transformation ratio or number of turns in the winding
  • Step up
  • Step down
3. Types of services
  • Power transformer
  • Distribution transformer
  • Instrument transformer
    • Current transformer
    • Potential transformer
    • Auto-transformer
4. On the basis of the supply
  • Single-phase
  • Three-phase
  • 5. On the basis of cooling
    • Air Natural (AN) or Self air-cooled or dry type
    • Air ForceD (AF) or Air Blast type
    • Oil Natural Air Natural (ONAN)
    • Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF)
    • Oil Forced Air Forced (OFAF)
    • Oil Natural Water Forced (ONWF)
    • Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF)
  • EMF Equation of the Transformer
EMF Equation is given below:-
transformer-emf-eq
Where E1 and E2 are the voltages and N1, N2 is the number of turns in the primary and the secondary winding respectively.

Losses in the Transformer

  1. Core or iron losses
  • Hysteresis loss
  • Eddy current loss
  1. Copper losses
  2. Stray losses

Efficiency of the Transformer

Transformer efficiency is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power and is expressed in the equation below
TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY EQ




   
MORE DETAILS:-
Basic Transformer:- Click Here
Calculation of KVA or MVA:- Click Here




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