What is Synchronous Motor? - Electrical C & V


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01 March 2020

What is Synchronous Motor?

Synchronous Motor 

What is Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor

Synchronous Motor is a machine that converts rotational / electrical energy to MAC technical energy at synchronous speed (constant speed). When a D.C. If area cellular energy is given, it is D.C. runs like a motor. Similarly an alternator is an A.C. The motor is running, if its armature winding is supplied A.C. and Field winding is D.C. supplied. This type of motor is called synchronous motor.

Working Principle of Synchronous Motor

The diagram shows a part of a static filter type synchronous machine. In which North and South are two field poles and 1,2,3 armature poles. 
The Armature polarity of the poles will change according to the frequency of supply to them. At the initial starting moment, (1) South Pole, (2) North Pole and (3) South Pole. At this moment, a torque will act on the rotor, which will try to rotate the rotor in the direction of the clock, as shown in (a). During the second moment, the polarity of the rotor poles 1,2,3 changes. And kamash: north, south, north will be formed, see figure (b) and in this state the torque will work on the rotor counter clockwise. But the time to change polarity is very short, so the rotor will remain stable against alternating torque generated.




From the above it is clear that when the field winding of this motor is supplied the D.C and the armature is given the A.C. If supplied, this motor is not self-moving (self-starting). So in order to make the motor self-stabilizing, its rotor is rotated at such a speed that the rotor pole must have a distance of one pole at the same time as the rotor pole is turning its polarity and thus the clock on the rotor again A torque function in the direction of, as shown in Fig (c).

From the above we come to the conclusion that the synchronous motor does not cause self starting and
It has to be initially rotated at synchronous speed for constant speed. It is derived by the following formula

                                           N = f x 120 / Number of Pole

It is also clear from the above that a synchronous motor can only run at a fixed speed, which is called synchronous speed. For example, if a synchronous motor is 50 Hz and 4 pole it will only run 1500 RPM. The motor can run at speeds of neither 1501 nor 1499.

Use of Synchronous Motor (Applications of Synchronous Motor)

1. These motor are used in power houses and sub-station to increase the power factor. For this purpose, it is added to the parallel of the supply line.

2. These motors are also used to increase the power factor of the supply of large factories which have a lot of Induction motors.

3. These motors can also be used only for constant loads because a slight change in load has caused the motor to shut down.

Properties of Synchronous Motor (Benefits of Synchronous Motor)

1. It is a constant speed motor and its speed is constant from no load to full load.

2. By changing the field excitation, the power factor can be arranged economically.

Degradation of Synchronous Motor (Loss of Synchronous Motor)

1. Cannot use this motor for modified mechanical load.

2. Because it is not motor self-stating. Therefore it cannot be loaded.

3. To run the motor, its field needs only D.C. Applies are particularly needed.

4. This motor cannot be used for modified speed functions.

5. Hunting also occurs in this motor.

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