Thermal Power Plant - Electrical C & V

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30 March 2020

Thermal Power Plant

Thermal power plant

A thermal power station is a power generation plant in which the prime mover is run by steam. This steam is obtained by burning coal, gas etc. and heating the water. In this plant, the conversion of power works on the basis of the Rankine cycle.



thermal power plant
Steam Power Plant
                                       



How is thermal power produced?

Conventional thermal power stations use fuel to heat water, which creates steam at high pressure. From this, turbines are run to generate electricity. The central part of the power stations consists of a generator which is a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between the magnetic field and the conductor. The power source to rotate the generator varies. It mainly depends on the readily available fuel and the type of technology used.


power plants are classified based on the type of fuel used.

1. Nuclear power plants use nuclear reactor heat to drive steam turbine generators.
Steam turbine generators are also used in fossil fuel power plants or combustion turbines may be used in natural gas plants.

2. Geothermal power plants use steam from underground heated rocks
In renewable energy plants, fuel can be produced from waste generated from sugarcane, municipal solid waste, landfill methane or other types of biomass.
Blast furnace exhaust gas in integrated steel mills is of low cost although it is low energy-density fuel.
Waste heat from industrial processes is sometimes so concentrated that it is used for power generation and often for steam boilers and turbines.


Coal based power plant

When coal is used to produce electricity, it is usually first made of sawdust and then burned in a boiler furnace. The heat of the furnace converts boiler water into steam and is then used to run the turbine. This turbine rotates the generators and generates electricity. The thermodynamic efficiency of this process has improved over time. "" Standard "" steam turbines have achieved the most advanced thermodynamic efficiency of about 35 ° C for the entire process with some advanced improvements, meaning that 65% of waste heat of coal energy is released into the surrounding environment. The older coal power plants, especially in the ancient plant, are of very low efficiency and produce very high levels of waste heat. About 40% of the world's electricity is derived from coal.



Steam Power Plant Processing
Steam Power Plant Processing



Schematic diagram of coal-fired thermal power plant

1. Cooling tower                           10.Vapor control valve                  19. Super heater                     2. Cooling water pump               11. High pressure steam turbine  20. Forced draught (draft) fan
3. transmission line (3-phase)     12. Deaerator                                 21. Reheater
4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 13. Feedwater heater                   22. Combustion air intake
5. Electrical generator (3-phase)  14. Coal conveyor                        23. Economiser
6. Low pressure steam turbine     15. Coal hopper                            24. Air preheater
7. Condensate pump                      16. Coal pulverizer                      25. Precipitator
8. Surface condenser                      17. Boiler steam drum                 26. Induced draught (draft) fan
9. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 18. Bottom ash hopper         27. Flue gas stack



Product of power generation

It is necessary to consider the byproducts of power plant operation from both design and operation point of view. Waste heat is often released into the atmosphere using cooling towers, or by using river or lake water as cooling medium, due to the sure efficiency of the electric cycle. The fuel gas produced by the burning of fossil fuel is released into the air; It contains carbon dioxide and water vapor, and other substances such as nitrogen, nitrous oxide, sulfur oxide and (in the case of coal plants) fly ash and mercury. Solid waste ash produced from coal-fired boilers is removed. This ash can be reused as a construction material.


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