What is DC motor? - Electrical C & V


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11 March 2020

What is DC motor?


A DC motor is a machine that performs the task of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. DC motors are used for driving pumps, lathes and other machines and for their speed control. DC motors are also used in trolleys, electric trains and elevators. This motor is made from 0.01HP to several thousand HP as required.

DC Motor
DC Motor

Working Principal of DC Motor

When current is flowing in a conductor and is placed in a magnetic field, a mechanical force acts on it according to Fleming's law, which causes the conductor to move in the direction of the force.
The direction of force applied to the driver can be determined by Fleming's left-hand rule. This is the working principle of the motor.

Type of DC motor

There are 3 types of DC motor-

1. DC Series motor

The field winding of the DC series motor is connected in series to the armature and field winding is made by thicker insulating wire with less turn. Its initial torque is very high due to which it is used in electric train, lift, trolley, car, crane and conveyor belt machines where high force torque is required.

2. DC Shunt motor

DC Shunt adds the motor's field winding in parallel to the armature. In this, film making is made by thinner insulating wires giving more turn. The force of this motor increases with increasing momentary load and decreases when it is reduced, its speed is almost the same. This motor is used in machines operating at a steady speed such as lathe machines, water pumps, blower fans, machine tools etc.

3. DC Compound motor

At DC Compound Motors, field winding occurs in both series and parallel. The series field winding is of thick wire and low turn, its resistance is low. In series field winding is based on current load. Series winding will take less current if low load and field winding will take more current if higher load. Parallel field winding consists of thin wires and more turns. The resistance of this winding is also high. In parallel field winding, the current is almost the same.

There are also two types of Compound Motor: -

(i) DC Commutative Compound Motor

In series and parallel winding of Cumulative Compound Motor, the current flows in the same direction. The speed in these motors is based on the load, the speed will be higher without load and will decrease as the load increases. These motors are used where the load comes to the motor at once and then goes away.

These types of motors are used in many machines like Sewing Machine, Pinching Machine, Power Hammer and Press.

(ii) Differential Compound Motor

 In these motor series and winding, they oppose each other. These motors will have less flux at high load and more flux at low load. The specialty of these motors is that these motors have low speed without load and as the load increases the speed also increases. These types of motors are rarely used.
These motors are used to charge the battery for a long time.

Compound motors are used in rolling mills, heavy machines, elevators, leasing machines for extracting coal from the mine and punching and cutting.

Induction Motor:- Click Here
Synchronous Motor:-Click Here
Servo Motor:-Click Here

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