Electrical Earthing - Electrical C & V

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09 April 2020

Electrical Earthing

Definition of Electrical Earthing

By attaching a wire to the metal part of any metal machine or device, we connect it with the Earth Plate and Earth Electrode. This is called earthing or grounding. For the earth plate or earth electrode we use a very thick wire Use, whose resistance is very low. And there is also a reason for using low
resistance wire for this. Which we are going to tell you further.

Electrical Earthing
Electrical Earthing
     

Why the Earthing system is needed

The first reason for economizing any device is that we can avoid electric shock. Many times our equipment goes bad due to leakage current in the metal part of its equipment and which can cause us to touch, then to avoid the AC current, we make the earthing of the device so that whatever current With the help of that earthing, he goes straight into the earth. And we should not get electric shock.

some points of why we need earthing are given below.

1. Earthing protects our electrical equipment from leakage current and also protects us from electric shock.
2. It also protects the building from electricity falling during the rains.

Electrical Earthing
Electrical Earthing
                       
Questions related to Electrical Earthing

1. What is Earth?
Connecting any electrically operated device to the earthing plate buried inside the earth by a wire is called Earth.

2. What is Solidly Earthed?
Whenever an electrical device is connected directly to the Earth Electrode without a fuse circuit breaker and resistance it is called Solidly Earthed

3. What is Earth Electrode?
When the plate of a conductor or conductor is pressed inside the earth for the earthing of an electrical device, it is called Earth Electrode. Earth Electrode can be of many types. It can be in the form of a plate. Can it be in the form of a metal water pipe with least resistance.

4. What is Earthing Lead?
Earthing Lead is used to connect Earth Electrode and equipment.

5. What is Earth Continuity Conductor?
The conductor wire that connects all the electrical appliances in our house and the switch board and the eyelid is called the Earth Continuity Conductor.

6.What is Earth Resistance?
Meaning the total resistance between the electrode and the electrical device which is measured in Ω (Ohms) is called Earth Resistance.


What are the types of Earthing

Earthing is done in many ways depending on where you were and where you want to work or for how much load, like in our house we don't need much dominating meaning but a big company in a factory In India, a larger meaning is required, but there is one or two places where earthing has to be taken. Below you have been told some types of earthing and one of these more ways is also explained how you can do earthing in your house.

1.Pipe Earthing

For this earthing, at least 1.5 or 2 Inch thick iron pipe is used and its length is at least 8 to 9 feet, this is the most used method of earthing. In this method, the pipe is thickened 8 to 9 feet down in a damp place. It is covered with salt and coal around the pipe and it connects the earthing wire.

Pipe earthing is the most commonly used earthing, inside this earthing we use pipe. This earthing is done from 5 to 10 feet.

2.Rod Earthing

Road earthing is also like pipe earthing, in which a copper road of 12 Mm is buried in the earth. The copper road is buried directly into the earth with the help of Pneumatic Hammer without digging a pit. And from this the earthing wire is connected.

We use rod earthing where there is sand, because the sand sand has a lot of moisture. For this reason, we have to do a lot of earthing on a sandy place. And due to the depth, we use the road in this earthing, so this earthing is called rod earthing.

3.Plate Earthing

The plate earthing system consists of a copper plate 60cm X 60cm X 3.18mm (2ft X 2ft X 1/8 In). This copper plate is pressed 10 feet down into the earth. And this plate is placed in a humid place so that it can be interpreted better.

Plate earthing is called best earthing. Power station and substation use plate earthing only. This earthing is used in a place where there is a large amount of current flow (meaning where the load is very high).

4. Coil Earthing

Coil earthing is rarely seen. In this earthing G.I. Coils made of wire are used, this earthing is mostly used in railways and electrical poles.

5. Strip and Wire Earthing 

We do the strip and wire earthing where there is a rocky place (the ground where there are more stones). This earthing is heavily used in transmission lines.


Accessories to earthing

We need a lot of goods to do earthing, but most of all we will need three things, whose names are given below.

1. Earth Continuity Conductor
2. Earthing lead
3. Earth Electrode


1. The resistance you use the Earth Continuity Conductor wire for earthing should not exceed 1Ω. Copper wire is always used for earthing. Whatever you had for earthing, it should be at least 6mm in size.

2. We use the Earthing Lead to connect the earthing wire to the earthing plate, it should also be of copper as shown in the photo above. For more security, you can use two earthing wire, for this you have to install two earthing lead and earthing plate also. And meaning you have to make them Loop. You will lift it from the first earthing plate and take it to the device and put the second wire on the same device and drop it back down from the earthing plate so that your device will be more secure. You will use two earthing wire for larger equipment.

3. Earthing Electrode is always used of copper and iron, but copper is used for greater security. Earthing plate should be placed in a place where moisture can be done properly.


How to do Pipe Earthing at Home?

1. First of all, looking at the place of moisture, dig a pit there and the pit is 30 cm. × 30 cm The size should be 4.75 meters deep. You should use GI pipe. The length of this pipe is 2 meters and 38 mm. Must be the diameter. And will make 12 mm holes in the middle between this GI pipe. This pipe should be slanted from below.

2. After this, the GI pipe has to be reconnected with the pipe of earth electrode, Reducing Socket. GI pipe we will use to keep moisture inside the ground. Now put both these pipes in the pit. Cover the funnel with water so that the soil does not get inside.

3. Inside this pipe you have to make a hole and inside it you have to install 1 Net Bolt and washer with which we will connect our earthing wire. And connect the earthing wire to the pipe well with the help of this nut bolt and washer so that it is not loose.

4. Then you have to put salt and coal inside the pit. You have to put at least 10-10 kg of salt and coal. And you do not have to put salt or coal together, first you have to add some salt, then some coal and then salt and coal again and then you have to make a layer by mixing the rest of the coal and salt together.

5. After adding half the salt and coal, you have to pour light water over it so that the salt and coal freeze well.

6. And start adding salt and coal again, just as the layer was made above the first layer. And after adding all the salt and coal, spraying water again.

7. And then fill the soil in the pit. But whatever is the earthing wire, you take it out with the help of a separate thin plastic pipe. So that the effect of soil is not on our earthing wire.

8. Put a little bit out of the Earth Electrode pipe. Pour water in it and fill it completely and then fix it with cement concrete by putting bricks around it so that the lid can be put on it. And after filling this pipe with water, cover this pit.

9. Now the next day you can connect your earthing wire to it, it is ready to make the connection. To check this, you can use a bulb so that you can attach one wire to the phase wire and check the other wire by connecting it to the earthing.

Precautions

1. Pipe should be fitted according to moisture in the pit.
2. The length and thickness of the pipe should be according to the law of electricity.
3. The bottom of the pipe should be slant.
4. And there should be some holes in the middle of the pipe so that when we pour water in the pipe, that water will keep moisture well all around.
5. The connection of any wire you connect to the pipe must be tightened.


Plate Earthing

1. Dig a pit more than 3 meters deep in the ground, whose width is 90 cm. × 90 cm Ho.

2. A copper plate for Earth Electrode whose size is 60 cm. × 60 cm × 3.18 mm or G.I. Plate size 60 cm × 60 cm × 35 mm Ho.

3. Make holes in the middle of the plate.

4. Tighten the piece of wire, which is called Earthing Lead, with a plate with nut-volt.

5. Now place the plate vertically in the pit surface.

6. 15 cm around the plate. Thickly fold salt and coal after each other until the plate is covered.

7. Earthing Lead 12-5mm Remove the diameter from inside the pipe.

8. A 19 mm Take the diameter pipe to the surface of the plate.

9. A funnel is found 19 mm long. Apply diameter on the upper surface of the pipe.

10. Close the pit with a cover-iron lid.


How much should Earthing Resistance

Earthing is used for the safety of equipment on our side, the lower the resistance of earthing, the better it will be called earthing. The best earthing would be 0 ohms, but having 0 ohms is not possible.

• Resistance to earthing of power plant is kept at 0.5 ohm or less.

• Resistance to earthing at substation is kept below 2 ohm.

• Lt Pole (poles less than 1000 voltages) have earthing resistance less than 5 ohms.

• Less than 10 ohm earthing resistance is placed on electrical poles (H.T Pole) above 1000 volts.

• Resistance to earth earthing is considered less than 8 ohm.


How reduce Earthing resistance

Some methods to reduce the resistance of earthing.

1. To keep the resistance of Maintain Moisture of earth- Earth, we use water and we also add water to the earthing point from time to time.

2. Increase Contact Area of ​​Electrode - We maintain the resistance of earthing by increasing the thickness of the electrodes used in earthing.

3. Use of Salt and Coal in Earthing- Wherever we have placed the electrode in the ground for earthing, the resistance of the ground remains maintained for a long time even by putting salt and coal there.

4. Increase Depth of Electrode- If we insert the electrode to a greater depth at the time of earthing. In this way also earth resistance is reduced.

5. Use Extra Earthing - If the earthing resistance is not reduced even after doing it in four ways, then we do earthing by putting two or more electrodes in the ground.




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