5 Reason for Burning of Transformer - Electrical C & V


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12 May 2020

5 Reason for Burning of Transformer

1) Why is the Transformer Burning?

Most of the Transformer is bad only after burning and after burning, they start smelling of burning. A burnt transformer can be easily identified by just looking at it. Some of these become weak and burn with such time, and some get burnt due to technical fault. But many times our own mistakes also cause the transformer to burn, which is being told in the transformer coil winding series below.

5 Reason to Burn Transformer
5 Reason to Burn Transformer 

a) Burning of the primary coil of the Transformer

Direct AC supply is provided in the transformer and usually any device is made according to use at 220v ac. So if the transformer is used at more than 220V AC, then the transformer will get hot and burn.

b) Burning of the secondary coil of the Transformer

Below we are giving 2 possible reasons why any transformer is damaged by the burning of secondary winding.

i) Burning of secondary coil due to voltage overload

The output voltage and output current of any transformer is fixed. Now suppose you have a transformer of 2 amperes at 12 volts. In this, you supply within 220V ac, but you connect its output to a circuit that needs 15 volts and 1-ampere current.

Here, since you are giving the supply right in this and the load on the transformer of 2 amperes is also giving only 1 ampere, this is correct. But since your transformer turns out 12 volts but your circuit needs 15 volts, your circuit will try to take 15 volts from this transformer and then your transformer will burn.

ii) Burning of secondary coil due to current overload

Suppose you have a 12-volt transformer of 2 amperes. In this, you supply up to 220V and you put its output in a circuit that needs 12 volts and 3-ampere current. Since you are giving the right supply and the load is also giving 12 volts.

But since your transformer is of 2 amperes and you are giving a load of 3 amperes to it, your circuit will try to take 3 amperes current from this transformer which will cause the transformer to burn.

c) Weak Insulation of Transformer coils

We all know that the coil used in transformers is very thin but does not pass current above that coil. This is because the way our home wiring has a plastic cover over the wire used in the same way, a thin cover is also applied over the thin wire used in any coil which is called insulation. is.

Many times when a transformer becomes weak due to overuse or if its quality is of poor quality then its insulation is also weak. When supplied in such a transformer, the insulation burns and collapses as soon as the coil is slightly heated. After that, the coil gets naked from place to place, and then a short circuit is started in it, due to which the transformer burns. In such a situation the transformer becomes useless and replacing it is the only option.

2) Breakdown of Transformer wire or coil

Many times we also have a transformer which is not burnt and there is no visible defect from anywhere, but still, that transformer is bad and does not work. If you ever come across such a transformer, it may be that its coil is broken somewhere inside, or that the wire that is left for connection is not connected properly to the coil.

If there is any such problem, its testing can be done by checking the resistance of the coil. If you can connect the broken wire or coil by opening the transformer then it is fine otherwise the whole transformer itself will have to be replaced.

3) Carbonization between the coil and the connection wire of the Transformer

Such problems do not come with copper-coated transformers. But if the coil of the transformer is of aluminum then such a problem can occur. Actually, aluminum does not have a welding on the wire, when any wire is wrapped along its coil from above without welding, it becomes carbon at that connection point after some time of use.

Carbon can form at the connection point of both the primary coil and secondary coil of the transformer. If possible, you can open the transformer and re-connect its wire properly, otherwise you will have to replace it.

4) Transformer shortening

Many transformers have neither a coil broken, nor does it burn, nor does it contain carbon, but it can still be broken and short. However, in the event of a shortcode, any transformer can and should not work properly. Therefore any transformer can be considered as short in the condition mentioned below.

a) The output voltage exceeds the limit from the transformer

When the insulation of the primary coil of any transformer is burnt, it starts to get interconnected. In this case, the resistance of the coil decreases and it consumes more power and at the same time it also provides more output supply. Therefore, even if the input supply is given more than a transformer, it will mean that its primary coil is spoiled. If you have the facility of repairing the transformer then it is okay otherwise the whole transformer will have to be replaced.

b) AC current shock from the secondary coil of the transformer

There are many times that the transformer works correctly but it burns slowly from inside and we don't know. Along with this, there can be many reasons, due to which a time comes when the quilts of both primary and secondary quilts are interconnected at any place.

As soon as this happens, AC current with primary coil starts passing from the secondary coil due to which the circuit connected to it also gets damaged. After this, whenever you touch its secondary coil, you will get a shock of AC current which can also be dangerous. Replacing the short-lived transformers in this way is the only solution.

c) Passing current from the body or core of the transformer

The body of the transformer is called core and is of conductive material. Its job is to absorb the heat of the coil. Under normal conditions, the primary coil, secondary coil, and core trio of any transformer do not have any electrical connection between themselves. But if ever there is a sharp shock of AC current on the core of the transformer, it will mean that the core and primary coil are shortened.

If there is not a strong shock to the core but if you check the voltage on the core by checking with the multimeter with the primary coil, then the core and primary coil will still be considered short. Also, if the voltage in the multimeter is indicated with the secondary coil and core also, both the core and secondary coil of that transformer will be considered as short.

If you ever tell the voltage when you check the voltage from a multimeter on any coil with the core of any transformer, then it will mean that the transformer is short and bad. However, this way the short-lived transformer also works correctly, but if any of your circuits or your body comes in contact with its core, both can be damaged. So if you are able, then you can try to remove its shorting, otherwise replacing the transformer will be the only solution.

5) Use of inferior quality material in Transformers

Even the smallest material used in any transformer has major functions. Take a material tissue paper for example. If it is not used in the transformer, then the primary and secondary coils will shorten and the transformer will burn.

So if any transformer with even one component is of poor quality, it will not take much time to go bad. Therefore, always buy a good and branded transformer company, and before purchasing, check thoroughly from your level that each material used in it is of the highest quality.

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